英语期末复习unit 1-2课后习题第一题及背诵段落

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unit 1

1.Hundreds of people were___.rendered___ homeless by the earthquake.

翻译:地震使数百人无家可归。

A.rendered B.launched

C.reckoned D.engaged

选C rendered:使成为;使变得;使处于某状态;给予;提供;回报;递交;呈献;提交
render的过去分词和过去式

2.Before you do anything, you must reckon with_ the danger that may arise.

翻译:在你做任何事之前,你必须考虑到可能出现的危险。(arise:发生;产生;出现;(由…)引起;(因…)产生;发展,记忆技巧:a 表加强 + rise 出现 → 出现)

A.reckon with B.take a gamble in

C. press on with D.drag on

.reckon with:估计到;预料到;需要处理;必须对付

3.The enemy, caught off guard_, soon surrendered.

翻译:敌人措手不及,很快就投降了

A.caught off guard B.brought to a halt

C.bringing to a halt D.catching off guard

caught off guard :猝不及防;措手不及

4.We must not underestimate__ the enemy. They are equipped with the most advanced weapons.

翻译:我们不能低估敌人。他们装备了最先进的武器。

A.retreat B.conquer

C.underestimate D.instruct

underestimate:v.低估;对…估计不足;对…认识不足(或重视不够);轻视n.低估;轻视。记忆技巧:under 不足,不够 + estimate 估计 → 估计不足

5.In January 1944, the long siege_ of Leningrad was lifted.

翻译:1944年1月,列宁格勒的长期围攻解除。

A.offensive B.conquest C.siege D.occupation

siege:n.(军队对城镇的)围困,包围,围攻,封锁;(警察对建筑物的)包围

6.The talks might drag on for weeks before any concrete result is announced.

翻译:在宣布任何具体结果之前,谈判可能会拖延数周。
(concrete混凝土制的; 确实的,具体的; 有形的; 实在的; 混凝土; 用混凝土覆盖;announced宣布,宣告; 通知; 声称; 宣称; announce的过去分词和过去式)

A.drag on B.pull out C.press over D.come out

drag on:不必要地拖延;拖得过久

7.She said there was a desperate need for up-to-date and reliable equipment.

翻译:她说需最新可靠的设备(up-to-date直到最近的,现代的,新式的; 现代的;最新的;尖端的;当今的;)

A.deficient B.desperate

C.devastating D.decisive

desperate:adj:(因绝望而)不惜冒险的,不顾一切的,拼命的;绝望的;孤注一掷的;铤而走险的;非常需要;极想;渴望
记忆技巧:de 否定 + sper 希望 + ate 具有…的 → 没有希望 → 绝望的

8.Money will be crucial__ to the accomplishment of our objectives.

翻译:金钱对实现我们的目标至关重要

A.devastating B.decisive C.crucial D.efficient

crucial:至关重要的; 关键性的

9.This information is only raw__ data and will need further analysis.

翻译:此信息仅为原始数据,需要进一步分析。

A.law B.raw C.haw D.jaw

raw:raw生的; 未烹制的; 未煮的; 未经加工的; 自然状态的; 未经处理的; 未经分析的

10.A group of attackers launched an all-out assault just before dawn.

翻译:一群袭击者在拂晓前发动了全面袭击。(attackers攻击者; 袭击者; 进攻者; attacker的复数
all-out全力以赴的
assault侵犯他人身体; 侵犯人身罪; 攻击; 突击; 袭击; 冲击; 猛烈攻击,袭击,侵犯人身; 使难受
dawn黎明; 拂晓; 破晓; 开端; 曙光; 萌芽; 开始; 变得明朗; 开始清楚)

A.retreated B.engaged

C. launched D.rendered

launched:v.开始从事,发起,发动(尤指有组织的活动);(首次)上市,发行;使(船,尤指新船)下水
launch的过去分词和过去式

11.The Labor Party’s electoral (竞选的)strategy, which was based on a tactical_____alliance_______with other minor parties, has proved successful.

翻译:事实证明,工党的选举策略是成功的,该策略建立在与其他小党派结成战术联盟的基础上。(Labor Party工党(1900年成立,初称“劳工代表委员会”)
electoral有关选举的
strategy策略; 计策; 行动计划; 策划; 规划; 部署; 统筹安排; 战略; 战略部署
based on以……为基础;在……基础上,以……为依据
tactical战术上的; 策略上的; 有谋略的; 手段高明的; 善于谋划的; 战术的; 短程的
minor较小的; 次要的; 轻微的; 小调的; 小音阶的; 未成年人; 辅修科目; 辅修课程; 辅修
parties政党; 党派; 聚会; 宴会; 联欢会; 派对; 群,队,组; 寻欢作乐; 吃喝玩乐; party的第三人称单数和复数
proved证明; 证实; 后来被发现是; 最终显现为; 展现,展示,显示; prove的过去式)

A.alliance B.declaration C.region D.siege

alliance:结盟,同盟; 结盟团体; 联盟

12.The government troops recaptured the city from the rebels____at the cost of_________two thousand casualties.

翻译:政府军以两千人的伤亡从叛军手中夺回了这座城市。(troops军队; 部队; 士兵; 连队; 坦克连; 骑兵连; 童子军中队; 成群结队而行; 列队行进; troop的第三人称单数和复数
recaptured赢回; 夺回; 抓回; 再次捕获; 回忆; 再体验; 重温; recapture的过去分词
casualties伤员,亡者,遇难者; 受害者; 毁坏物; 损坏物; 急诊室; casualty的复数)

A.weaken B.at the cost of C.render D.in the case of

at the cost of :以…为代价

13.By a _____stroke___of good luck, Genelle, who had been buried in the rubble (瓦砾)for more than 26 hours, came out alive.

翻译:幸运的是,在瓦砾中被埋了26个多小时的吉奈尔活着出来了。(buried埋葬; 安葬; 丧失; 把掩藏在地下; 埋藏; bury的过去分词和过去式
rubble碎石; 碎砖
瓦砾rubble; debris; brash)

A.minus B.limp C.stroke D.crucial

stroke :n.击球(动作);(打、击等的)一下,一击;划水动作;划桨动作
v.轻抚,抚摩(动物的毛皮);抚摩(物体表面或头发等);轻挪;轻触;轻拭

14.My brother wasn’t badly hurt, but he injured his leg and had to ____limp_______around for a few weeks.

翻译:我弟弟伤得不重,但他的腿受伤了,不得不跛行几个星期。

A.raw B.take its toll C.bide his time D.limp

limp:adj.无力的;无生气的;无精神的;柔软的;不直挺的
v.瘸着走;跛行;蹒跚;(受损后)缓慢行进,艰难地移动
n.跛行

15.The aircraft was subjected to a test of temperatures of ____minus______65 degrees Celsius and plus 120 degrees.

翻译:这架飞机接受了零下65摄氏度和120摄氏度的温度测试。(aircraft飞机; 航空器
subjected使臣服; 使顺从; 压服; subject的过去分词和过去式
test测验; 考查; 检查,化验,检验; 试验; 测试; 检查; 化验; 检验
temperatures温度; 气温; 体温; temperature的复数
degrees度,度数; 度数; 程度; degree的复数
Celsius摄氏的; 摄氏
plus加; 和; 也; 外加; 优势; 好处; 长处; 加号; 多,余; 零度以上; 零上; 优点的;)

A.minus B.bog C.decisive D.bleak

minus:prep.减;减去;零下;无,欠缺(曾经有过的东西)
n.减号;负号;负值;缺点
adj.小于零的;负的;负面的;使显得有欠缺的;略低于A(或B等)
记忆技巧:min 小 + us 表名词,用于科学术语 → 变少 → 减去

16.Tax incentives combined with cheap labor will attract companies to the western ____regions____of our country away from the east coast.

翻译:税收优惠加上廉价劳动力将吸引公司到我国远离东海岸的西部地区。(combined with联合
cheap花钱少的; 便宜的; 廉价的; 收费低廉的; 价低质劣的; 低价地; 廉价地; 便宜地
labor劳动,努力;工作; 劳工,工人; 分娩,阵痛; 努力争取(for); 苦干; 详细分析缓慢而困难地运转
attract吸引; 使喜爱; 引起…的好感; 招引; 引起
companies公司; 商号; 商行; 剧团; 演出团; 陪伴; 做伴; company的复数
western西方的; 向西的; 西部的; 西方国家的; 欧美的; (描写19世纪美国西部,尤指有关牛仔生活的)西部电影,西部小说
away from离开
east东; 东方; 东部; 东边; 亚洲国家,东方国家; 东方的; 向东的; 东部的; 东风的; 东方吹来的; 向东; 朝东
coast海岸; 海滨; 滑行,惯性滑行; 快速平稳地移动; 不费力地取得成功)

A.regions B.campaigns C.conquest D.gamble

regions:n.(通常界限不明的)地区,区域,地方;行政区;(一国除首都以外的)全部地区,所有区域
region的复数

17.To my surprise, the opening speeches sounded more like ___declarations________of war than offerings of peace.

翻译:令我惊讶的是,开幕词听起来更像是战争宣言,而不是和平宣言。(sounded听起来好像; 让人听着好像; 听起来…的; 发出声音,响; sound的过去分词和过去式
more like更接近于
offerings用品; 剧作; 作品; 供消遣的产品; 祭品; 供品; offering的复数)

A.regions B.declarations C.stroke D.alliance

declarations:n.公告;宣告;宣言;声明(书);宣布;表白;宣称;申报(单)
declaration的复数

18.After a three-day ___siege_______by the police, the terrorists who had seized the restaurant had to give in.

翻译:经过警方三天的围攻,占领这家餐馆的恐怖分子不得不投降。(terrorists恐怖主义者; 恐怖分子; terrorist的复数
seized抓住; 捉住; 夺; 夺取,攻占,控制; 逮捕; 捉拿; 俘获; seize的过去分词和过去式
give in认输; 承认做不到; 屈从; 让步)

A.alliance B.casualty C.siege D.declaration

siege:n.(军队对城镇的)围困,包围,围攻,封锁;(警察对建筑物的)包围

19.Once we stepped off the plane and onto the prairie, we were greeted by a gust of ___raw_____and biting wind.

翻译:当我们下了飞机,来到大草原上,迎面而来的是一阵刺骨的狂风(prairie北美草原; 新大陆北部草原
werebe 的过去时复数和第二人称单数形式; 有时代替 was,用于条件从句、动词 wish 之后等
greeted和打招呼; 欢迎; 迎接; 对…作出反应; 映入…的眼帘; 传入…的耳中; greet的过去分词和过去式
gust一阵强风; 一阵狂风; 迸发,爆发,发作; 猛刮; 劲吹)

A.raw B.decisive C.weaken D.crucial

.raw:adj.生的;未烹制的;未煮的;未经加工的;自然状态的;未经处理的;未经分析的;原始的
n.擦伤处

20.Being young and impatient, they are inclined to dash into the jaws of danger where an experienced fighter might bide his time.

翻译:由于年轻而不耐烦,他们倾向于冲进危险的深渊,在那里一个有经验的战士可能会等待时机(inclined想; 有…倾向; 很可能; 倾向于同意; 倾向于,有…的趋势; 点头; 倾斜; incline的过去分词和过去式
jaws颌; 下巴; 下颌; 口部; 嘴; 唠唠叨叨; 喋喋不休; jaw的第三人称单数和复数)

A.bide his time B.render C.limp D.crucial

bide his time:等待自己的时机;bide等待,停留; 居住; 等待; 等待时机

21.The harassing budget problems of the past few months ___have taken their toll_____on her health and there are shadows beneath her eyes.

翻译:过去几个月令人不安的预算问题给她的健康带来了损失,她的眼睛下面也有阴影。

A.have engaged B.have taken their toll

C.have pressed on D.have dragged on

have taken their toll:造成损失

22.Workers who have to work on weekends are paid twice the normal wages. And ____in the case of_____national holidays, they get triple pay.

翻译:周末必须工作的工人的工资是正常工资的两倍。如果是国定假日,他们可以得到三倍的薪水。

A.at the cost of B.drag on

C.in the case of D.being faced with

in the case of:假使,如果发生

课文:背诵段落

1. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia.

1812年,法国皇帝拿破仑•波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。

He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland.

他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。

He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city.

他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。

But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy劲敌that met him in Moscow – the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.

但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。
1.launched 2.against 3.military might 4.resistance 5.taught 6. came to the aid of

2 . In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called.

1941年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫•希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。

Hitler’s military might was unequaled.

希特勒的军事实力堪称无敌。

His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe.

他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。

Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson.

希特勒希望速战速决,但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。

The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一臂之力。
Napoleon’s Campaign 拿破仑发起的战役

unit 2

1.Before Anglo—American westward expansion_,there were already a number of settlements in the mid-West.

翻译:在英美向西扩张之前,中西部地区已经有许多定居点。(settlements协议; 解决; 处理; settlement的复数)

A.expansion B.application C.signal D.orbit

expansion:n.扩张;扩展;扩大;膨胀
记忆技巧:expand 使扩张 + sion 行为,行为的过程和结果 → 扩充

2.We are confident that the introduction of an automated_ assembly line will eliminate most of today’s human errors.

翻译:我们相信,引进自动化装配线将消除当今大多数人为错误。(introduction初次投入使用; 采用; 引进; 推行; 新采用的事物; 介绍,引见
assembly line装配线,流水线
will将; 愿,要,会,定要; 烦劳别人做事时用; 想要; 希望; 愿意; 喜欢; 立定志向; 决心; 决意; 立遗嘱将赠与; 立遗嘱赠与; 意志; 毅力; 自制力; 意愿; 心愿; 遗嘱
eliminate排除; 清除; 消除; 淘汰; 消灭,干掉
errors错误; 差错; 谬误; error的复数)

A.hazard B.automated C.approximate D.steer

automated :adj.自动化的
v.使自动化
automate的过去分词和过去式

3.Warmer air is able to hold more water vapor__ than cold air and so has a higher humidity.

翻译:较暖的空气比冷空气能容纳更多的水蒸气,因此湿度较高。(humidity湿度; 湿热; 高温潮湿)

A.hazard B.lane C.vapor D.mount

vapor:n.蒸汽,水气
v.蒸发
第三人称单数: vapors 复数: vapors 现在分词: vaporing 过去式: vapored 过去分词: vapored

4.In most communities in the US, the local American Red Cross chapter has been authorized to take control of__ certain local pubic building in times of emergency .

翻译:在美国的大多数社区,当地的美国红十字会被授权在紧急情况下控制当地的公共建筑。(communities社区; 社会; 团体; 社团; 界; 共享; 共有; community的复数
chapter章,篇,回; 时期,时代,篇章; 主教座堂全体教士; 宗教团体的全体成员
authorized批准; 授权; authorize的过去分词和过去式
certain确实; 确定; 肯定; 确信; 无疑; 某事,某人,某种; 某些
pubic阴部的
in times of在…的时刻; 在…的时期)

A.take control of B.alert C.detect D.eliminate

.take control of:控制;掌管;取得对……的控制

5.Traffic control establishes a set of rules and instructions that drivers, pilots, train engineers, and ship captain rely on to avoid collisions and other ____hazards_____.

翻译:交通管制建立了一套规则和指令,驾驶员、驾驶员、培训工程师和船长可以依靠这些规则和指令来避免碰撞和其他危险(establishes建立; 创立; 设立; 确立; 使立足; 使稳固; establish的第三人称单数
a set of一套; 一副
instructions用法说明; 操作指南; 指示; 命令; 吩咐; 指令; instruction的复数
drivers驾驶员; 司机; 驾车者; 球杆; 驱动程序; driver的复数
pilots飞行员; 驾驶员; 领航员; 引水员; 领港员; 试播节目; 驾驶; 领航; 引导; 使通过; 试点; 试行; pilot的第三人称单数和复数
engineers工程师; 设计师; 机修工; 技师; 技工; 轮机手; 机械师; 密谋策划; 设计制造; 改变…的基因结构; engineer的第三人称单数和复数
captain船长; 机长; 上校; 上尉; 首领; 领导者; 队长; 担任…的队长
rely on依靠; 信赖
collisions碰撞事故; 冲突,抵触; collision的复数)

A.apart B.hazards C.satellite D.prototype

hazards:n.危险;危害
v.冒失地提出;冒险猜测;冒…的风险;使处于危险
hazard的第三人称单数和复数

6.In the past few decades since the launching of the first artificial satellite___ in 1957, thousands of “man-made moons ” have been rocketed into the Earth’s orbit ,each designed to serve a specific purpose or mission.

翻译:自1957年第一颗人造卫星发射以来,在过去的几十年里,数千颗“人造卫星”被火箭送入地球轨道,每一颗都是为特定目的或任务而设计的。(launching开始从事,发起,发动; 上市,发行; 使下水; launch的现在分词
artificial人工的; 人造的; 假的; 人为的; 非自然的; 虚假的; 假装的
rocketed快速增长; 猛增; 迅速移动; 迅速成功,迅速提高地位; rocket的过去分词和过去式
orbit轨道; 影响范围,势力范围; 沿轨道运行; 围绕…运动)

A.transmitter B.radar C.satellite D.lane

satellite:n.人造卫星;卫星;卫星城;卫星国;外围组织

7.The thunder crashed so near the house that the glass vibrated_____ in the windows, and some books, which had sat on the windowsill fell to the floor.

翻译:雷声在房子附近轰隆作响,窗户上的玻璃都震动了,一些放在窗台上的书掉到了地上。

A.vibrated B.bunched C.detected D.eliminated

vibrated:v.(使)振动,颤动,摆动
vibrate的过去分词和过去式

8.Radio telescopes have provided valuable information about other stars and about the magnetic___ fields of planet in our solar system, especially Jupiter’s.

翻译:射电望远镜提供了关于其他恒星和太阳系中行星磁场的有价值的信息,特别是木星的磁场。(provided如果; 假如; 在…条件下; 提供; 供应; 给予; 规定; provide的过去分词和过去式
valuable information有价值的信息
fields田; 地; 牧场; 场地; 大片地方; 使参加竞选; 使参加比赛; 担任守队; 任守方; 接,截,传; field的第三人称单数和复数
planet行星; 地球
solar system太阳系; 类太阳系
especially尤其; 特别; 格外; 专门; 特地; 十分; 非常
Jupiter木星)

A.signal B.magnetic C.remote D.approximate

magnetic:adj.像磁铁的;有磁性的;磁的;磁性的;富有吸引力的;有魅力的
派生词: magnetically adv.

9.At the beginning of the race, the runners were bunched__ together on the track, but later some of them got ahead and left the others behind.

翻译:比赛开始时,运动员们在跑道上在一起,但后来有些人领先了,其他人落后了。

A.correlated B.started up C.bunched D.sent out

bunched:v.(使)变紧;(使)成皱褶
bunch的过去分词和过去式

10.From the control tower, air traffic controllers coordinate aircraft movement both in the air__ and on the ground.

翻译:空中交通管制员在指挥塔上协调飞机在空中和地面的移动。(control tower指挥塔台,控制塔,指挥调度台
air traffic controllers空中交通管制员; 航空调度员; air traffic controller的复数
coordinate使协调; 使相配合; 使动作协调; 协同动作; 搭配,协调; 坐标; 配套服装,套装
aircraft飞机; 航空器
movement运动,转动; 移动; 迁移; 转移; 活动; 运动
on the ground当场)

A.at the cost of B.remote

C.computerize D.in the air

in the air:可感觉到;可被意识到

11.Further troubles developed in October 1995 when the tape recorder in the orbiter Galileo got stuck in___ the “rewind” position for 15hours, wearing out a section of the tape.

翻译:1995年10月,伽利略号轨道飞行器上的磁带录音机被在“倒带”位置15个小时,一段磁带磨损,从而引发了进一步的麻烦。(tape recorder录音机
orbiter宇宙飞船; 轨道飞行器
rewind重绕; 倒带; 倒片; 倒带器
wearing令人精疲力竭的; 使人疲倦的; 令人厌烦的; 穿; 戴; 佩戴; 蓄,留; 流露,面带,呈现; wear的现在分词
tape磁带; 录音带; 录像带; 录了音的盒式磁带; 录了像的盒式磁带; 胶带; 胶条; 把)

A.got stuck in B.incorporated

C.decreased D.automated

got stuck in:陷入困境

12.In 1978, at the beginning of the reform period, ____approximately_______11000 Chinese students went abroad to pursue further studies.

翻译:1978年,改革初期,有11000名中国留学生出国深造。(reform改革; 改进; 改良; 改正,改造; 悔改; 变革; 改善
period一段时间; 时期; 阶段,时代; 纪; 某一时代的; 具有某个时代特征的
pursue追求; 致力于; 执行; 贯彻; 继续探讨; 追逐; 跟踪; 追赶)

A.drastically B.remote C.approximately D.traffic

approximately:adv.
大概;大约;约莫

课文:背诵段落

7 Two of the most frustrating things about driving a car are getting lost and getting stuck in traffic.

开车最头疼的两大麻烦是迷路和交通堵塞。

While the computer revolution is unlikely to cure these problems, it will have a positive impact.

虽然计算机革命不可能彻底解决这两个问题,但却会带来积极的影响。

Sensors in your car tuned to radio signals from orbiting satellites can locate your car precisely at any moment and warn of traffic jams.

你汽车上与绕轨道运行的卫星发出的无线电信号调谐的传感器能随时精确地确定你汽车的方位,并告知交通阻塞情况。

We already have twenty-four Navstar satellites orbiting the earth, making up what is called the Global Positioning System.

我们已经有24颗环绕地球运行的导航卫星,组成了人们所说的全球卫星定位系统

They make it possible to determine your location on the earth to within about a hundred feet.

通过这些卫星我们有可能以小于100英尺的误差确定你在地球上的方位。

At any given time, there are several GPS satellites orbiting overhead at a distance of about 11,000 miles.

在任何一个特定时间,总有若干颗全球定位系统的卫星在11000英里的高空绕地球运行。

Each satellite contains four “atomic clocks,” which vibrate at a precise frequency, according to the laws of the quantum theory.

每颗卫星都装有4个“原子钟”,它们根据量子理论法则,以精确的频率振动。

8 As a satellite passes overhead, it sends out a radio signal that can be detected by a receiver in a car’s computer.

卫星从高空经过时发出能被汽车上计算机里的接收器辨认的无线电信号。

The car’s computer can then calculate how far the satellite is by measuring how long it took for the signal to arrive.

汽车上的计算机就会根据信号传来所花的时间计算出卫星有多远。

Since the speed of light is well known, any delay in receiving the satellite’s signal can be converted into a distance.

由于光速为人熟知,接收卫星信号时的任何时间迟缓都能折算出距离的远近。

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